Liz is an adoption Fellow in the Academy of Adoption and Assisted Reproduction Attorneys (AAAA). She focuses her practice on all aspects of adoption and reproductive law matters in Southeast Pennsylvania and...Read More by Author
Adoption 101: What To Know When Considering Adoption (Part 2)
In Part 1 of “Adoption 101: What To Know When Considering Adoption” series, we discussed the home study report or family profile and deciding what type of adoption is best for your family. This second part of the series explains the legal components of the adoption process in Pennsylvania.
Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children
If you decide to adopt domestically, you may still have another legal aspect to your adoption if you adopt across state lines. Adoption law is state-by-state, and any placement of a child across state lines is governed by the Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children (ICPC). ICPC applies when a child is moved from the sending state where they are born to the receiving state where the adoptive parents reside unless their situation is an ICPC exemption. When a child is moved from the sending state where they are born to the receiving state where the adoptive parents reside, an attorney or agency must submit legal and medical/social background information that conforms with the states’ adoption laws and the ICPC regulations to the ICPC offices in both states. The family cannot travel to their home state until the ICPC packet clears and approves the placement. Specifics on each state can be found on the ICPC State Pages and you can find a trusted attorney that understands ICPC through the Academy of Adoption and Assisted Reproductive Attorneys.
Termination of Parental Rights & Adoption Finalization
In adoption in Pennsylvania, there are two main legal aspects that must occur – (1) termination or relinquishment of parental rights of the biological parents and (2) finalization of the adoption of the adoptive parents to become the legal parents. Procedures vary as adoption law is state-by-state. In addition, if you are completing an interstate adoption, you may have Choice of Law where you can review both state’s law options for your family.
Termination or relinquishment of parental rights of the biological parents – This may be referred as Consents, Relinquishments, Extinguishing, or Surrendering rights. In some states this is done outside a courtroom, extrajudicially by signing paperwork, in other states, it is required for the biological parents to testify in court or for the attorney and/or agency to confirm the consents in court to receive a termination decree.
Finalization – A Finalization hearing is where a judge orders the child to be the legal child of the adoptive parents. This occurs after the biological parental rights have been terminated and the adoptive parents have completed their post-placement requirements. If an adoption agency is involved they must consent to the adoption as well.
After the Finalization, the adoptee will be a natural child to the adoptive and now legal parents in every way. It is important to complete additional steps after this hearing, such as applying for an amended birth certificate and a social security number and gathering appropriate documents to apply for the adoption tax credit. If you need a temporary number for the child before you get a social security number, you can apply for an Adoption Taxpayer Identification Number.
When going through the adoption process, there may be other aspects to consider that may influence your decision in the process.
Openness – Most domestic adoptions today are open adoptions, where the biological parents and adoptive parents are aware of each other’s identities and have formed some level of relationship and communication moving forward. Many states have Post Adoption Contact Agreements, including Pennsylvania, and requirements for the court to maintain biological family information for the adoptee.
Counseling – The adoption process is emotional for all parties and it is important to take care of your mental health throughout the process and in the future. You can find an Adoption Competent Therapist here.
Type of Family – Depending on the type of family you are or are looking to building, you may run into obstacles depending on the state and agencies you encounter. It is recommended if you identify as an LGBTQI family, single parent, or large family, that you seek sound guidance from professionals in your state that have worked with your type of family before.
Health Concerns – When adopting or fostering a child there are known and unknown health concerns, ranging from behavioral concerns, drug exposure, premature delivery, genetic aspects, or other health concerns. It is important to educate yourself on the medical aspects of your adoption plan and work with experts, such as adoption medical clinics, to know how to best care for your child.
Health Coverage – It is important to make sure the child has health coverage available from birth if needed and to speak with your insurance carrier about the options for coverage for the child.
Birth Certificate – In the adoption process, the birth certificate is usually not amended until after the finalization is complete. This could be several months or years after the child is placed with you. Once the adoption is finalized you will submit for an amended birth certificate with the child’s new name and your name(s) as parents. In Pennsylvania, you can learn more about applying for a birth certificate here.
Where do I go next?
You can start by contacting an attorney, agency, or local organization in your home state. Here are some resources to get you started.
American Academy of Adoption and Assisted Reproductive Attorneys – Directory of lawyers with extensive experience in the practice of adoption law, ART law, or both.
AdoptUSKids – AdoptUSKids is a national project that supports child welfare systems and connects children in foster care with families
Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption – Nonprofit foster care adoption organization that finds homes for foster care children across the US & Canada.
Human Rights Campaign LGBTQ Resources – All Children All Families Initiative that provides vetted resources to LGBTQ families in the adoption process.
National Council for Adoption – Adoption Advocacy and Awareness to meet the diverse needs of children, birth parents, adopted individuals, adoptive families, and all those touched by adoption through global advocacy, education, research, legislative action, and collaboration.
The information contained in this publication should not be construed as legal advice, is not a substitute for legal counsel, and should not be relied on as such. For legal advice or answers to specific questions, please contact one of our attorneys.